Reader Demographics via Emotional Beats

**This was posted in April, 2016 – I was going to do a piece on burnout, and preventing same, but the flu is sweeping through Day Job and we’re swamped. Unlike a lot of marketing advice, this is just as relevant as when it was first posted, and worth revisiting.**

If I were selling jewelry at a gaming con or ren faire, the easiest way to figure out my target audience is to note who’s attracted to the displays, and who of that segment has enough money to buy the merchandise. (There’s a secondary market of “attracted to the display, but can’t afford; clearly I need to find a piece that it’s their price range yet still profitable to sell!” But that’s a digression, not quite so applicable to ebooks.) For silver and semiprecious stones, that’s the $20-$80 price range for a good-sized gaming con, with a few pieces/sets up to $250 that may or may not move, but attract the customers to the booth.

The demographic is primarily women and gay men, though if a man walks by with a lady who glances at our booth, he’s the best kind of fair game. “Sir! I have a necklace for your lady that would go perfectly with… your credit card!” Generally, for silver and garnet, you’re looking at the college age, though any older gothy types are even better – they have more money, know what they like, and won’t hesitate to purchase it. We’re especially looking for the people who have similar tastes in jewelry on them. “Shiny things! We have sparkly, shiny things!”

(Okay, maybe that’s more “when I used to” than “if.”) Anyway, it’s pretty easy to suss out your demographic – if they’re not interested, they saunter off. If they are, they stick around for the pitch, or browse and buy. Selling ebooks blind through a vendor makes it a lot harder to figure out who your target market is, especially when you didn’t have one in mind when you started.

Who likes science fiction? Who likes entertaining stories? Who’s willing to put in time and money to getting good stories? Don’t limit yourself artificially here. If you check the demographics of Star Wars fans on Tumblr, you’re going to find demographics… that reflect Tumblr. If you check the demographics of science fiction fans at WorldCon, you’re going to skew old, literary, and heavily social justice compared to DragonCon… neither of which are the same as a ComicCon, and even that won’t reflect the general population that liked The Martian enough to go see it in the movie theater. Most statistics of reader populations are small and self-selecting, reflecting the pool from which they’re drawn. They tend to miss the vast majority of the buying public.

The Martian’s opening-week audience, who went to go see it based on trailers alone, was 54% male, 59% of whom were over 35 years old. Week 2 was 52% male, 72% over 25 years old. The preordered tickets for Star Wars: The Force Awakens were “primarily” male, between 18 and 49, with an average age of 34. Given the Martian’s domestic gross from film run was $228 Million, even if you assumed $20/ticket (it’s $9.50 locally), that’s still a heck of a lot of eyeballs. Neilsen Bookscan, which we know misses a lot of sales, was reporting 62,000 sales per week of The Martian (print format, ebook not included) after the film was released.

Granted, you don’t have a film directed by Ridley Scott backing your book. Nonetheless, you can see there’s a heck of an audience out there the publishers don’t tend to reach. Dream big!

So, you’re now nodding, and saying “Okay, so you’ve proven that men in the 18-49 range like science fiction if it promises to have a good story. And lots of women; 52-54 percent is barely a majority. How do I get any clearer than that?”

Well, now you get to do some research on your particular book. Go to your biggest market (probably Amazon), and start pulling up the first books in your also-boughts for one of your books. (Skip the other ones by you. That just proves that the readers like you, and buy more after one try.) Now, you’re going to break out for each of these some basic dissection.

As you go through the book, which emotional beats does the book contain, and in what proportion? Beats are: wonder, humor, adventure, horror, romance, mystery, and drama.

1. Is your protagonist Male or female? How old are they?
2. Is there romance or romantic subplot in the book? What rough percentage of the book is dedicated to the romance?
2a. Are there explicit sex scenes? (female audience!)
3. On the action to introspection scale, what rough percentage of the book is action, and what percentage internal monologue and introspection?
3a. Is the protagonist whiny? (female audience!)
4. Is there a sidekick? Are they humorous? (kids and male audience!)
5. Is your antagonist nature itself, some faceless group entity / race / corporation, or a villain?
5b. If your antagonist is a villain, What is their age, sex, and occupation?
5c. Is it the cartoon standard of rich old white man or corporate man for evil corporation?
6. Is your scifi hard, cyberpunk, military, space opera, or steampunk? Is your fantasy urban fantasy?
6b. Does your urban fantasy have sexy monsters or ugly monsters that get killed?

People find it easiest to identify with someone like them.** Kids can identify with a protagonist up to about 27 years old, as long as they don’t become parents, but respond best to someone their age or slightly older. (A 14-year-old has been 10. She doesn’t want to be 10 again, but she may want to be 16, or 18.)

In general, statistical strokes:

Kids and Teens respond strongly to wonder, adventure, and humor. Teen girls to romance, teen boys to horror.

Women from Age 20-40 respond strongly to romance, humor, horror, mystery, and drama. (As they approach 40 and the hormone levels drop, mystery and drama statistically become stronger draws, and romance less.)

Men from 20-50 respond strongly to adventure, primarily, followed by wonder, drama, and mystery.

Military, active and vet, like military science fiction, and action/adventure, especially if it doesn’t have navel gazing or anti-military messages. They also tend to like hard(er) scifi, where the challenges against environment and entropy are clear.

Kids, even the ones still in college, respond strongly to coming-of-age, exploration of strange worlds and cultures, fitting in, etc. Parents are often absent or dead in stories, sometimes the restrictions that must be overcome.

Over time, the response shifts strongly and naturally to caring for loved ones, providing for a family, raising children, and makng a relationship stable and lasting. Now the fears are threats to children / family, to relationships / marriages, to jobs.

So look at your story, and the other stories your audience likes. Peter’s Laredo Trilogy books often lack romantic subplot, and by the other books his audience buys, that’s pretty normal for the target audience. This means they’re going to skew military and skew male, looking for adventure, wonder (cool new worlds! Starship battles!), drama (the ship is at stake! So is the empire!), and mystery.

Sabrina Chase’s The Scent of Metal, on the other hand, has adventure, wonder, and romance as its primary emotional beats. And it has kissing (sparks fly!) So her audience demographics is likely to skew much more heavily female than Peter’s books, though the military aspects will draw military of both sexes.

Dave Freer’s Changeling’s Island is a wide-audience-draw marketed as YA. The protagonist is a teen boy of unmentioned age, but there’s a girl sidekick that can provide somebody for preteen and early teen girls to empathize with. The parents are absent, but there’s the boy’s grandmother, and the girl’s parents, to provide adult points of view, with their own challenges and struggles when it comes to taking care of family, of neighbors, fitting in as an adult newcomer, remaining independent as your body fails you and the place you know changes (that’s a post-50 draw for men, post-40 draw for women). The kids’ POVs are heavy on wonder, adventure, mystery, and humor. The parental storylines have horror and drama interleaved in.

If you want more in-depth on this, check out Dave Farland’s Million Dollar Outlines. He has some pretty nifty demographics breakdown that can be applied to marketing, not just outlining.

One final note: all this analysis can be done in outlining, or post-writing, but it’s not prescriptive for how to write any single book, much less your book. Write the book that thrills you, that inspires you, that you love. If you write to a marketing formula, it’s at best formulaic, where if you write to emotion, it’ll have an emotional depth to attract and hold readers.

Wrapping this up now, as I’m crashing for the night. What beats and demographics do you find from one of your stories and its also-boughts?

** “Identify” is greatly abused by identity politics idiots. This does not means Honor Harrington’s audience is limited to heavyworlder-genetically modified female captains with treecats, for goodness’ sakes, nor do you have to be a dragon to enjoy Dog and Dragon. Common sense, please! This means that men tend to like reading stories about men, women about women. People in their 30’s will find more in common with protagonists in their 30’s, cat people with cats and cat-owning protagonists, dog owners with loyal dogs and their owners in the story. And children have a really, really tough time connecting with a character that’s a parent, as opposed to a character that’s a child. (Whod’a thunk most kids don’t see things from a parental point of view!) This is a broad statistical truth, not an ironclad always-in-every-case. (See: demographics of Harry Potter fans.) But that’s just the very start, and it’s far more important to keep reading the rest of this article about emotional beats than to skim until offended!

21 Comments

Filed under FYNBOSSPRESS, MARKETING, WRITING: PUBLISHING

21 responses to “Reader Demographics via Emotional Beats

  1. Thanks for the reminder! And I wager that as your sub-genre becomes more specific—prehistoric alt-history set in Anatolia with magical space aliens who look like Chinese unicorns [hey, I’m trying for “off the deep end” here]—you have to be even more tailored in your marketing.

    • And in which emotional “beats” you hit.

    • Dorothy Grant

      …I’d actually count that as “too focused to on the wrong thing, when it comes to marketing.” Step back, mentally, from the fact that you know it’s pre-historic Anatolia with magical aliens, and go back to the emotional beats on your story. Are you writing something with wonder? (Unicorns!) with horror? (auuugh! Beasts that talk back and hunt us!) with drama (the unicorns are giving urgent warnings the elders won’t heed!) with man vs environment (they’re telling us to flee before the Med fills in again!)… Once you’ve got your emotional beats, that’ll give you a far better grasp on the full range of “Who’s my potential audience?” than “who likes prehistoric alien unicorn encounters?”

      • Mary

        I think it might help to explicate more on how to recognize whether your work hits wonder, adventure, drama, etc. I’m not sure myself.

  2. Interesting. I got to these lines

    “2a. Are there explicit sex scenes? (female audience!)

    (A 14-year-old has been 10. She doesn’t want to be 10 again, but she may want to be 16, or 18.)

    Kids … respond best to someone their age or slightly older.”

    and concluded that one day I fell asleep and woke up in a different world, one that looks like mine, but isn’t. Or perhaps it’s that I am in my eighth decade at this point.

  3. BobtheRegisterredFool

    Have done some soul searching. Have realized I identify as mostly correct about mostly everything, including what I mentioned in my stupid pronoun joke.

    Doesn’t mean I’m actually correct. In fact, certain instinctual assumptions that feel correct in the heat of the moment are intellectually known to be incorrect, or insufficiently supported by evidence.

    (Trying to make people call me by “who is correct” ‘pronouns’ would ensure that pretty much no one would put up with my bullshit and engage with me. So both futile and lonely.)

    Confidence in conclusions, and other similar aspects of internal life don’t seem to be necessary for me to identify with a protagonist.

  4. Good points, and worth thinking about as I start the follow-up MilSF novel…

  5. Side note: I like garnet a lot better than most precious stones, actually. Deep red is a good color for me. But then, that’s not the only way I’m an outlier.

    Different side note: At the last WorldCon I went to (2015), someone tried to use me as an example of “there’s still plenty of young people!” I had to point out that I was almost 40 and thus a really bad example.

    Anyway. What did I do? I wrote a book in a genre that doesn’t really exist right now (medieval romance, which is NOT romance, and mine isn’t set on Earth, either) and somehow it’s listed in Children’s at Amazon. (Well, there isn’t anything *objectionable* in it, but it’s more YA/wide appeal.) As to why I haven’t fixed that, technically I’m not in charge of that, and I’ve been dealing with three kids, two with health issues that needed to be addressed (broken leg, you know) and all the other things I’m trying to get caught up on.

    There are quite a few people I know who are surprised when they find out I have a book. Apparently I am a little bit too far to the “not pushy” side of the marketing end. 🙂

  6. kaflick

    I find that as I age (and not too gracefully) that I prefer my characters to be in their late teens or early twenties. That is the direction I want to escape in my escapist literature. 🙂

    • Mary

      An age that has many advantages. Ranging from their liminal nature to their ability to range far without raising too many questions about what responsibilities are they shirking vs. how did they get to that age without any responsibilities.